Wednesday, July 18, 2012

Yet Another Post About JavaScript Scopes and Closures


When discussing scope it’s important to consider where a variable is defi ned as well as its lifetime.Where is the variable accessible? In the case of JavaScript, scope is maintained at the function level,not the block level. Hence, variables defi ned with the keyword var and parameters are visible only inside the function in question.

A nested function has access to its outer function’s variables, except for this and arguments. The mechanism through which a nested function continues to keep the references of its outer function even after the outer function fi nishes execution is called closure. Closures also help to reduce namespace pollution.


Each time an enclosed function is called, a new scope is created, although the code doesn’t change. The following code shows this behavior.

function getFunction(value){
return function(value){
return value;
}
}
var a = getFunction(),
b = getFunction(),
c = getFunction();
console.log(a(0));
0
console.log(b(1));
1
console.log(c(2));
2
console.log(a === b);
false


When defining a standalone function (not bound to any object), this is bound to the global namespace. As a direct result, when creating an inner function within a method, the inner function’s this variable is bound to the global namespace, not the method. To circumvent this situation, the enclosing method’s this variable is assigned to an intermediate variable called that, by convention.

obj = {};
obj.method = function(){
var that = this;
this.counter = 0;
var count = function(){
that.counter += 1;
console.log(that.counter);
}
count();
count();
console.log(this.counter);
}
obj.method();
1
2
2

Friday, July 6, 2012

Organize your CSS Code


Organizing your CSS helps with future maintainability of the site. Start with a master style sheet. Within this style sheet import your reset.css, global.css, flash.css (if needed) and structure.css and
on occasion a typography style sheet. Here is an example of a “master” style sheet and how it is embedded in the document:

1. h2 { }
2. #snapshot_box h2 {
3. padding: 0 0 6px 0;
4. font: bold 14px/14px "Verdana", sans-serif; }
5. #main_side h2 {
6. color: #444;
7. font: bold 14px/14px "Verdana", sans-serif; }
8. .sidetagselection h2 {
9. color: #fff;
10. font: bold 14px/14px "Verdana", sans-serif; }

Organize your CSS-styles, using flags. “Divide your stylesheet into specific sections: i.e. Global Styles – (body, paragraphs, lists, etc), Header, Page Structure, Headings, Text
Styles, Navigation, Forms, Comments, Extras

/* -----------------------------------*/
/* ---------->>> GLOBAL <<<-----------*/
/* -----------------------------------*/


Organize your CSS-styles, making a table of contents. At the top of your CSS document, write out a table of contents. For example, you could outline the different
areas that your CSS document is styling (header, main, footer etc). Then, use a large, obvious section break to separate the areas.

Organize your CSS-styles, ordering properties alphabetically. “I don’t know where Igot the idea, but I have been alphabetizing my CSS properties for months now, and
believe it or not, it makes specific properties much easier to find.”

1. body {
2. background:#fdfdfd;
3. color:#333;
4. font-size:1em;
5. line-height:1.4;
6. margin:0;
7. padding:0;
8. }

Separate code into blocks.. “This might be common sense to some of you but sometimes I look at CSS and it’s not broken down into “sections.” It’s easy to do an it
makes working with code weeks, months, or years later much easier. You’ll have an easier time finding classes and elements that you need to change. Examples: /*
Structure */, /* Typography */ etc.” 

Hook, line, and sinker. Once you have your CSS and sections in place start considering where your selector “hooks” will live by using structural hooks in your mark up. This is
your saving grace for future editing and maintenance of the site. This will also give youstrength in your document.”

Break your style sheet in separate blocks. “I break down my style sheet into three separate blocks. The first is straight element declarations. Change the body, some links
styles, some header styles, reset margins and padding on forms, and so on. […] After element declarations, I have my class declarations; things like classes for an error
message or a callout would go here. [..] I start by declaring my main containers and then any styles for elements within those containers are indented. At a quick glance, I can see
how my page is broken down and makes it easier to know where to look for things. I’ll also declare containers even if they don’t have any rules.”
Posted on 9:30 PM | Categories: